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PhD defence : Layal Saliba

PhD defence : 12/10/2009 ’salle des thèses de la faculté de Médecine, secteur Nord’

ABSTRACT

This work joins within the framework of studies about the mechanisms of integration of the visceral information in response to environmental disturbances. In the first part of this work, our results suggest that neurons of the nucleus of tractus solitarii (NTS) could use different neurotransmission modes according to their projection pathway. In neurons involved in vital reflexes such as those regulating respiration, the lack of important iA current, as well as a synaptic transmission which depends mostly on AMPA receptors with less accessible NMDA receptors, would induce a very precise and highly reliable treatment of the information. On the contrary, in neurons implicated in the elaboration of visceral sensations such as respiratory distress, the presence of an important iA current, as well as a synaptic transmission involving peri-synaptic NMDA receptors, would allow an easy modulation of the neurotransmission and a global activation of some brain areas. In the second part of this work, we show that ozone inhalation induces a neuronal activity in regions of adult rat NTS receiving pulmonary afferences, at doses causing a lung inflammation comparable to that provoked by atmospheric peaks of pollution to certain humans. Pulmonary inflammation and neuronal activity inferred by ozone inhalation increase from the first hours of exposure and remain high as long as stimuli is present. The continuation of this work aims to determine if ozone induces a neuronal inflammation, and to characterize its effects on the neurotransmission particularly in the NTS. Keywords : nucleus of tractus solitarii, ozone, glutamatergic transmission, neuronal activity, pulmonary inflammation.

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