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Accueil > Bibliographie > The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and functions of glial (...)

The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and (...)

Glia. 2011 Nov ;59(11):1672-83
The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and functions of glial cells.
Razafimanjato H, Benzaria A, Taieb N, Guo XJ, Vidal N, Di Scala C, Varini K, Maresca M.

Glial cells are responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis. Modification of the viability and functions of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, are associated with neuronal death and neurological diseases. Many toxins (heavy metals, pesticides, bacterial or viral toxins) are known to impact on brain cell viability and functions. Although recent publications suggest a potential link between environmental exposure of humans to mycotoxins and neurological diseases, data regarding the effects of fungal toxins on brain cells are scarce. In the present study, we looked at the impact of deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal ribotoxin, on glial cells from animal and human origin. We found that DON decreased the viability of glial cells with a higher toxicity against microglial cells compared with astrocytes. In addition to cellular toxicity, DON affected key functions of glial cells. Thus, DON caused a biphasic effect on the neuroinflammatory response of microglia to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while sublethal doses of DON increased the LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and nitric oxide, toxic doses inhibited it. In addition to affecting microglial functions, sublethal doses of DON also suppressed the uptake of L-glutamate by astrocytes. This inhibition was associated with a modification of the expression of the glutamate transporters at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that environmental ribotoxins such as DON could, at low doses, cause modifications of brain homeostasis and possibly participate in the etiology of neurological diseases in which alterations of the glia are involved. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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