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Accueil > Bibliographie > The hepatotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) (...)

The hepatotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitro

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1988 ;22(2):153-62.
The hepatotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) in rats. Ultrastructural evidence of a delayed microtubular toxicity.
Ducastelle T, Raguénez-Viotte G, Fouin-Fortunet H, Matysiak M, Hemet J, Fillastre JP.

A few cases of liver involvement have been reported in patients receiving treatment with the antineoplastic nitrosourea CCNU. A single oral dose of 20 or 50 mg/kg CCNU in female Wistar rats induced an important increase in transaminases between day 2 and day 6, followed by a second, moderate increase between day 21 and day 28. Alkaline phosphatases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (threefold-increase) were noted for the two doses and were greater for the highest dose. Histological and ultrastructural studies disclosed hepatic lesions of two types : during the first phase of transaminase increase, inflammation of the portal tracts ; during the second phase marked dilation of bile canaliculi and numerous filamentous bundles distributed at random throughout the liver cell cytoplasm like normal microtubules. Thus, CCNU induced pericholangitis and intrahepatic cholestasis with microtubular abnormalities. The long-term evolution of hepatic alterations revealed that in the 3rd month after a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg CCNU, lesions were persistent but stable ; no reversibility was observed in the 3rd month after 50 mg/kg CCNU, and evolution towards cholangiolysis and biliary cirrhosis was noted. We suggest that CCNU causes a bimodal hepatotoxicity in rats : an early and prolonged ductal injury and a delayed anti-liver cell microtubule toxicity.


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