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Sulfatide inhibits HIV-1 entry into CD4-/CXCR4+ (...)

Virology. 1998 Jul ;246(2):211-20
Sulfatide inhibits HIV-1 entry into CD4-/CXCR4+ cells.
Fantini J, Hammache D, Delezay O, Pieroni G, Tamalet C, Yahi N.

Sulfatide (3’sulfogalactosylceramide) is the natural sulfated derivative of galactosylceramide (GalCer), a glycosphingolipid receptor allowing HIV-1 infection of CD4-negative cells from neural and intestinal tissues. The incorporation of exogenous sulfatide into the plasma membrane of HT-29 (a CD4-/GalCer+/CXCR4+ human intestinal cell line) or RD (CD4-/GalCer-/ CXCR4+ human rhabdomyosarcoma) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Experiments with luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with HIV-1 or amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelopes demonstrated that sulfatide acts at the level of viral entry. Paradoxically, the transfer of sulfatide in the plasma membrane of various CD4- cells resulted in increased binding of HIV-1. Surface pressure measurements were conducted to study the interaction of gp120 with glycosphingolipid monolayers. The data showed that gp120 could penetrate into a monomolecular film of GalCer, confirming the role of this glycosphingolipid as a functional receptor for HIV-1. In contrast, the insertion of gp120 into a monolayer of sulfatide was very limited. Moreover, the incorporation of sulfatide in a monomolecular film of GalCer specifically inhibited the penetration of gp120. In conclusion, these data show that sulfatide mediates gp120 binding but, in marked contrast with GalCer, is not able to initiate the fusion event.


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