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Somatostatin and regulation of prolactin secretion.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1986 ;11(2):155-65
Somatostatin and regulation of prolactin secretion.
Enjalbert A, Bertrand P, Le Dafniet M, Epelbaum J, Hugues JN, Kordon C, Moyse E, Peillon F, Shu C.

In addition to its classical growth hormone (GH) inhibiting action, somatostatin (SRIF) inhibits prolactin (PRL) secretion in man and rat under specific endocrine conditions. Furthermore, SRIF counteracts the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulated prolactin release from rat adenohypophysis in vitro. Two criteria are needed to demonstrate a physiological role of SRIF in PRL control : specific receptors must be present on prolactin secreting cells, and antagonization of endogenous SRIF must affect PRL secretion in vitro. In fact [125I]N—Tyr—SRIF binds to membranes not only of human GH-secreting adenomas, but also of prolactinomas. Specific binding characteristics are comparable in both cell types, but the density of sites in PRL-secreting adenomas is only one-quarter that in GH-secreting adenomas. In contrast, non-PRL-secreting chromophobe adenomas are devoid of specific binding. On the other hand, administration of SRIF antisera (SRIF-AS) affects both GH and PRL secretion in starved rats (a model in which pulsatile GH secretion is abolished) ; a marked increase in PRL plasma levels occurs, but the needed SRIF-AS concentration is higher than that for GH disinhibition. This demonstrates that endogenous SRIF may exert a negative control over PRL secretion, although lactotroph cells appear less sensitive to SRIF than somatotrophs. Since the apparent affinity of SRIF binding sites is similar on both GH and PRL secreting cells, at least in human tumor tissues, a lower density of SRIF receptors on PRL cells could account for this reduced responsiveness. Alternatively, different coupling mechanisms may be involved in the two cell types.


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