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Accueil > Bibliographie > Nitrosoureas lomustine, carmustine and fotemustine induced hepatotoxic (...)

Nitrosoureas lomustine, carmustine and fotemustine (...)

Eur J Cancer. 1991 ;27(5):630-8.
Nitrosoureas lomustine, carmustine and fotemustine induced hepatotoxic perturbations in rats : biochemical, morphological and flow cytometry studies.
Laquerriere A, Raguénez-Viotte G, Paraire M, Bizzari JP, Paresy M, Fillastre JP, Hemet J.

Chloroethylnitrosoureas are reactive compounds that are highly effective against malignant neoplasms in humans and animals. The most widely used nitrosoureas, lomustine and carmustine, are known to be hepatotoxic and to induce pericholangitis and intrahepatic cholestasis, which in the long term lead to cholangiolysis and biliary cirrhosis. However, the nitrosourea fotemustine has proved to be non-hepatotoxic at 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. We have studied the effect of these three nitrosoureas on the cytotoxicity and cellular kinetics of rat liver cells. Lomustine and carmustine modify the proliferation index of liver cells in vivo : flow cytofluorometry showed that DNA cell distribution is quite similar for lomustine and carmustine, with subsequent accumulation of cells in G2 + M phase. 3 months later regressive morphological and cell cycle perturbations are noted for the lower dose of lomustine and carmustine. The most severe lesions are noted with lomustine (50 mg/kg). Fotemustine is not hepatotoxic and preferentially induces S phase perturbations. The more toxic nitrosoureas, lomustine and carmustine, induce comparable hepatocyte cell cycle alterations which differ from those induced by the less hepatotoxic nitrosourea fotemustine.


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